by Jack Le Moine
Sumeria (4500 BC to 2000 BC) also called “Chaldea” are loose terms that describe the Iraq area over successive waves of invasion, internal turmoil, and immigrations. The predominant language was Akkadian. The area became the first Babylonian Empire.
Assyria and Babylonia co-existed (2000 BC to 900 BC) before Assyria established its supremacy in the region (including conquering Egypt). 900 BC to 600 BC.
Babylonia led a region-wide revolt against Assyria, destroying their empire in 612 BC. This short-lived empire did not last a century.
Persia (550 BC to 330 BC) from the east conquered Babylon and everything else in the region including the area of modern Turkey. They were taken down by Alexander the Great.
After Alexander’s death, his general established the Seleucid Empire. This takes us down to 63 BC.
The Parthians, a people in northern Iran conquered the Seleucids and ruled the area until around 225 AD.
The Sasanian Empire took over after the Parthians imploded and ruled the area until the Arab Caliphate overthrew them around 650 AD. This was the last of the great empires of the ancient Middle East.